In vitro and in silico anti-dengue activity of compounds obtained from Psidium guajava through bioprospecting

Martinez Gutierrez, Marlen
Trujillo-Correa, Andrea Isabel
Quintero-Gil, Diana Carolina
Diaz-Castillo, Fredyc
Quiñones, Winston
Robledo, Sara M
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Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga
For decades, bioprospecting has proven to be useful for the identification of compounds with pharmacological potential. Considering the great diversity of Colombian plants and the serious worldwide public health problem of dengue-a disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV)-in the present study, we evaluated the anti-DENV effects of 12 ethanolic extracts derived from plants collected in the Colombian Caribbean coast, and 5 fractions and 5 compounds derived from Psidium guajava. METHODS: The cytotoxicity and antiviral effect of 12 ethanolic extracts derived from plants collected in the Colombian Caribbean coast was evaluated in epithelial VERO cells. Five fractions were obtained by open column chromatography from the ethanolic extract with the highest selectivity index (SI) (derived from P. guajava, SI: 128.2). From the fraction with the highest selectivity (Pg-YP-I-22C, SI: 35.5), five compounds were identified by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The antiviral effect in vitro of the fractions and compounds was evaluated by different experimental strategies (Pre- and post-treatment) using non-toxic concentrations calculated by MTT method. The DENV inhibition was evaluated by plate focus assay. The results were analyzed by means of statistical analysis using Student's t-test. Finally the antiviral effect in Silico was evaluated by molecular docking. RESULTS: In vitro evaluation of these compounds showed that three of them (gallic acid, quercetin, and catechin) were promising antivirals as they inhibit the production of infectious viral particles via different experimental strategies, with the best antiviral being catechin (100% inhibition with a pre-treatment strategy and 91.8% with a post-treatment strategy). When testing the interactions of these compounds with the viral envelope protein in silico by docking, only naringin and hesperidin had better scores than the theoretical threshold of - 7.0 kcal/mol (- 8.0 kcal/mol and - 8.2 kcal/mol, respectively). All ligands tested except gallic acid showed higher affinity to the NS5 protein than the theoretical threshold. CONCLUSION: Even though bioprospecting has recently been replaced by more targeted tools for identifying compounds with pharmacological potential, our results show it is still useful for this purpose. Additionally, combining in vitro and in silico evaluations allowed us to identify promising antivirals as well as their possible mechanisms of action.
Palabras clave
Antiviral; Catechin , Bioprospecting , Dengue virus , Gallic acid , Psidium guajava , Quercetin , Catechin