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- ÍtemUnderstanding the Epidemiology of Trypanosoma Evansi Infection in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) from Urban Areas of Colombia(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-04-29) Jaimes Dueñez, Jeiczon Elim; Jiménez Leaño, Ángela Patricia; Montenegro Ayala, Daniela; Estaban Mendoza, MariaTrypanosoma evansi is a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of the animal disease known as "surra", which affects a wide variety of wild and domestic mammals including humans. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular point prevalence and clinic-epidemiological traits of T. evansi infection in dogs from municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (MAB), Santander, Colombia. From 2019 and 2020, a crosssectional study in four municipalities of MAB was carried out to evaluate the above features in 213 healthy dogs from these cities. Molecular analysis using the primer ESAG/6 and ESAG/7, showed a T. evansi frequency of 1.8% (CI 95% = 0.04-3.68%), while Woo test didn't detect positive animals. A high prevalence of infection was detected in Piedecuesta (10.53%) and Bucaramanga (1.65%), apparently negative animals were detected in Giron and Florida Blanca. Clinical characteristics revealed that all positive animals (4/4) showed low Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and (3/4) low Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and one animal had a moderate fever with prolonged capillary refill time. The epidemiological characteristics showed that all animals received mixed food, (3/4) came from low socioeconomic areas, and (2/4) from neighborhoods without weekly garbage collection. In conclusion, molecular methods detected a considerable prevalence of animals chronically infected by T. evansi in MAB, with more frequency in neighborhoods of a low socio-economic level where animals have more risk of oral transmission. These results should be considered during urban control programs of surra in MAB.
- ÍtemBicefalia en becerra (Bos primigenius taurus), un raro caso en el municipio de Arauquita - Arauca, Colombia(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Maestría en Salud y Producción Animal, Bucaramanga, 2022-03-31) García Jazz, Laura; Hernández Niño, Samuel; Jaimes Dueñez, JeiczonA bicefalia é uma doença congênita, associada à presença de duas cabeças no mesmo indivíduo, que se torna letal para a maioria dos mamíferos que a possuem. O presente estudo descreve o primeiro caso de bicefalia em uma bezerra mestiça do departamento de Arauca - Colômbia, no qual são descritas características epidemiológicas e patológicas. Em conclusão, este é o primeiro relato oficial de bicefalia bovina no país, que foi associado a uma distocia fatal, acompanhada de alterações lombares e de extremidades, o que é compatível com relatos anteriores. A causa desta alteração é desconhecida; no entanto, presume-se mais um efeito ambiental do que de origem genética. O significado epidemiológico deste caso é mostrado abaixo.
- ÍtemFrecuencia de fascioliasis y su impacto económico en una planta de beneficio de Santander, Colombia(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-03-31) Mesa Mesa, Karina Andrea; Fonseca Sarmiento, Juan Camilo; Jaimes Dueñez, JeiczonO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de confisco de fígado de gado por fasciolíase e seu impacto econômico em um matadouro de Málaga, Santander, que presta serviços aos municípios da província de García Rovira. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com base nos registros do matadouro de Málaga, entre junho de 2020 e maio de 2021. Foram analisados 6.944 animais, dos quais 9,58%; IC 95% = 8,88 - 10,27% (665/6944), teve confisco de fígados devido à presença de F. hepatica. A análise estatística mostrou diferenças significativas na frequência de confisco entre sexo, municípios e meses (P ≤ 0,05), com frequências maiores nas hembras comparados con os machos, assim como nos municípios de El Cerrito e Guaca, e nos meses de maio e novembro. Uma correlação moderada foi encontrada entre a frequência de confisco e a precipitação média mensal na área de estudo. As perdas econômicas associadas ao confisco de fígado devido à fasciolíase foram estimadas em 15.573 USD ($ 56.998.480) por ano. Em concussão, a província de García Rovira é área com alta endemicidade de F. hepatica na Colômbia, gerando sérios impactos na saúde humana e animal, bem como na economia do setor pecuário.
- ÍtemRevisión: residuos de antibióticos en la carne, un problema de salud pública en Colombia(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-03-16) Ramírez Villamizar, Luis Horacio; Barragán Díaz, Ciro Alfonso; Cárdenas, Enrique; Niño Bayona, José Vicente; Jaimes Dueñez, JeiczonThe use of antibiotics in animal production has represented great advantages for production systems, guaranteeing the control of infectious diseases that affect the productive capacity of animals, as well as their use as growth promoters. The presence of residues of these drugs in foods of animal origin, especially in meat is consider by world organizations for food safety and security as a risk factor that can affect public health, especially in the case of antibiotics, due to the subsequent resistance they generate. In addition, they are consider a barrier to the economic development of any country due to the limitations on their ability to expand into international markets. The methods for the detection of these residues are increasingly sensitive, being important for countries like Colombia, where reform of regulations, control mechanisms, and the strengthening of technological capacity have been intensified given the especially importance by meat exportations. This review aims to expose the most important points regarding the presence of these residues in meat, including the current panorama of national and international legislation, as well as the results of research on the most common drugs that are found, their effect on human health and the most used methods for their detection.
- ÍtemAn overview of the trypanosomatid (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites infecting several mammal species in Colombia(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-12-16) Castillo Castañeda, Adriana C; Patiño, Luz H; Zuñiga, Maria Fernanda; Cantillo Barraza, Omar; Ayala, Martha S; Segura, Maryi; Bautista, Jessica; Urbano, Plutarco; Jaimes Dueñez, Jeiczon; Ramírez, Juan DavidBackground: Trypanosomatids are among the most critical parasites for public health due to their impact on human, animal, and plant health. Diseases associated with these pathogens manifest mainly in poor and vulnerable popula‑ tions, where social, environmental, and biological factors modulate the case incidence and geographical distribution. Methods: We used Sanger and amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) in samples from diferent mammals to identify trypanosomatid infections in several departments in Colombia. A total of 174 DNA samples (18 humans, 83 dogs, and 73 wild mammals) were analyzed by conventional PCR using a fragment of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) gene and Sanger sequenced the positive samples. Twenty-seven samples were sent for ampliconbased NGS using the same gene fragment. Data obtained were used to perform diversity analyses. Results: One hundred and thirteen samples were positive for PCR by Hsp70 fragment; these corresponded to 22.1% Leishmania spp., 18.6% L. amazonensis, 9.7% L. braziliensis, 14.2% L. infantum, 8% L. panamensis, and 27.4% Trypanosoma cruzi. Comparison of the identifed species by the two sequencing technologies used resulted in 97% concord‑ ance. Alpha and beta diversity indices were signifcant, mainly for dogs; there was an interesting index of coinfection events in the analyzed samples: diferent Leishmania species and the simultaneous presence of T. cruzi and even T. rangeli in one of the samples analyzed. Moreover, a low presence of L. braziliensis was observed in samples from wild mammals. Interestingly, to our knowledge, this is the frst report of Leishmania detection in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (capybara) in Colombia.
- ÍtemFactores antigénicos y consecuencias fisiopatológicas causadas por Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius y Malassezia Pachydermatis en dermatopatías canina(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2023-09-13) Patiño Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Plazas Hernandez, Fernely AugustoIn this review, some of the skin infections that are common in the veterinary practice are mentioned. Skin diseases can look very similar, even though the cause is different. Itching is a common and frequent symptom. Skin infections caused by bacteria, fungi and/or both at the same time are common and may require treatment for many weeks. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a pathogenic bacterium of concern in the veterinary field and is implicated in numerous canine infections, including topical infections such as canine pyoderma and otitis externa, as well as systemic infections in the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tracts. Zoonotic mycoses are more common in immunocompromised individuals, including hospitalized patients, in whom Malassezia pachydermatis, a zoophilic yeast, appears as an important microorganism in the etiology of nosocomial mycoses. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the participation of these two agents in the respective pathology, in order to obtain a better understanding of the damage and the antigenic factors that respond to the corresponding causative agents; such as their respective antigenic factors and the different pathophysiological consequences respectively
- ÍtemIdentificación de agentes hemotrópicos de los géneros Babesia, Theileria y Trypanosoma en equinos del corregimiento de Panamá, municipio de Arauquita – Arauca(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Arauca, 2023-09-11) Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia; Carvajal Rodriguez, Carlos Eduardo; Torres Niño, Yurley Damaris; Guada Rodriguez, Leidy Fernanda; Lopez Neite, Yeisson Omar; Guada Rodríguez, Leidy Fernanda; López Neite, Yeisson OmarHemotropic agents are a complex of organisms that have an affinity for equine blood tissue, which significantly affect the health of these hosts by being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Among the diseases caused by these infectious agents, equine trypanosomiasis and equine piroplasmosis stand out. The former is caused by species of the genus Trypanosoma, among which the species T. evansi and T. vivax stand out, while the latter is caused by the species Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Both diseases are characterized by clinical signs of fever, anemia, hemoglobinuria, multiorgan failure and neurological signs that can lead to death. The present work was a brief investigation, in which the study population was the equids of the aforementioned municipality during the summer season, when it is believed that these cases increase. The sample size was 30 individuals, which was calculated using the Epi-info TM 7.0 program, based on an expected infection prevalence of 2% (Calderón et al., 2013), a population size of 4879 individuals (equine population of the municipality of Arauquita, ICA Census 2021), an error of 5%, and a confidence level of 95%. For each animal, two blood samples were taken and collected for parasitological and molecular diagnosis by blood smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At the same time, during the sampling procedure, a clinical examination of each animal and an epidemiological survey were performed to determine the clinical signs and epidemiological variables associated with the infection. Finally, the genetic variability and phylogeographic relationships of the isolates were determined by sequencing molecular markers and subsequent bioinformatic analysis in the programs MEGA v.10.0.5 and MrBayes v.3.2.7. Of the total number of animals sampled, 63% were females and 37% were males, where four were aged zero to one year, four were aged one to three years, and 22 were aged three years and older. By means of parasitological and molecular techniques, 12 were positive for T. equi infection by PCR, which represents a prevalence of 40% for this infectious agent. Both molecular and parasitological analyses were negative for the other species evaluated (B. caballi, T. evansi, and T. vivax). The epidemiological variables associated with infection by T. equi, in relation to habitat, all the animals lived in pastures, with respect to the zootechnical purpose, three only worked, while nine were for work and reproductive purposes, with respect to vector control, only two of them did not carry out fly and tick control, but the rest did carry out controls, with respect to sex, seven were females, while there were five males. In the township of Panama de Arauca, trypanosomiasis is not as prevalent as piroplasmosis in equines. According to studies carried out in the municipalities of Maní, Yopal and Aguazul, which present similarities in terms of environmental conditions where tropical zones have characteristics that coincide between them. (Reina & Tovar, 2007), "showed that, in four farms of the corresponding municipalities, the highest general prevalence was Babesia spp, being 12.5%, although it was present in only two of the farms studied, reaching 40% in the Titirijí farm, Municipality of Maní; and 10% in the La Manigua farm, Municipality of Aguazul". However, no prevalence of any genus of Babesia was found in our study.
- ÍtemLeptospirosis bovina y su impacto en la reproducción(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2023-08-30) Quintero Garcia, Tino Herley; Gonzales Navarro, Juan José; Bonilla León , LilianLeptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is present in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, and also represents an impact on public health involving humans, domestic and wild animals. It is an infectious disease that produces significant economic losses. In the department of Tolima; cattle are very susceptible to the disease after the rainy season; Farms where the soils have a high capacity to retain water are a great source of infection and where the population at occupational risk involves workers from animal welfare plants, waste collection, sewerage and aqueduct. This disease is caused by a gram-negative bacterium that has a tropism for the uterus, hence its negative impact on reproduction, but it can also affect other organs such as the liver, kidney, among others; It is through the urine that the disease is excreted and spread; This disease occurs interrupting pregnancy and generating an economic impact, due to abortions and weak born pups, it should be noted that it is among reproductive diseases along with campylobacteriosis, trichomoniasis, brucellosis, neosporosis, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) among others, a correct diagnosis must be made since they occur in a similar way with other reproductive diseases. This infection has three acute, sub-acute and chronic phases. Abortions occur when the release of prostaglandin F2 α (PGF2α) is generated and leads to lysis of the corpus luteum (CL) and a decrease in progesterone P4, which generates an unfavorable environment for the embryo that ultimately cannot be recognized by the mother. given by interferon-tau (INT-t), for its diagnosis the main test that exists is MAT microagglutination, later provide antibiotic therapy with aminoglycosides of choice dihydrostreptopenicillin together with vaccination in order to prevent the disease these vaccines must be supplied immediately annually in animals and finally in the department of Tolima it is necessary to generate complete sanitary plans in bovines such as vaccination with different strains and different commercial vaccines each year, quarantine for newly admitted animals, periodic serological tests, hygiene, biosecurity for workers and operators, with this we can guarantee public health and the economy of ranchers in the department of Tolima.
- ÍtemProtocolos del plan de procedimientos operativos estandarizados de saneamiento “POES”, de la granja avicola San Nicolas Bucaramanga Santander(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga., 2023-08-31) Guerrero Cárdenas, Miguel Ángel; Rodriguez Salazar , Jairo EnriqueIn this degree work, the objective is to Implement complementary protocols for the standardized sanitation operating plan (POES), of the San Nicolas poultry farm in Bucaramanga in accordance with current regulations Law 09 of 1979 and its regulatory resolution 2674-2013, which (2) which establishes the sanitary requirements that must be met for the activities of processing, preparation, storage, transportation, distribution, and commercialization of food and the requirements for notification, permit or sanitary registration of food, according to public health, in order to protect the life and health of people. It began with a technical visit allowing to examine the situation of the farm, which allows the registration and evidence of information necessary for the execution of the operational plan (POES) providing an alternative to solve communicable diseases due to poor food handling for consumption. As a consequence of this, the sanitary diagnosis of the farm is carried out, thus allowing the manual of standardized operating procedures for sanitation to be carried out.
- ÍtemMétodos diagnósticos para panleucopenia felina(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2023-08-25) Nieto Buitrago, Nicol Valentina; Sánchez Bonilla, María del Pilar; Padilla Barreto, Mónica YamileFeline panleukopenia (FLP) is a disease caused by infection with carnivorous protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1), which has seriously threatened the health of felines around the world. Until today, different diagnoses have been developed, mainly based on molecular tests for the sensitive detection of CPV-1 in the clinic and the characterization of the viral strain.The objective of this literary review is to collect information on the most accurate diagnostic tools, although limited, from clinical sings, blood counts, PCR, immunochromatographic antigen test, ELISA to postmortem detection.