Ingeniería Mecánica


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  • Ítem
    Carbon-based nanocatalysts (CnCs) for biomass valorization and hazardous organics remediation
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Mecánica, Medellín y Envigado, 2022-05-14) Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A.; Zormpa, Foteini F.; Margellou, Antigoni G.; Qayyum, Abdul; Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Len, Christophe; Colmenares Quintero, Juan Carlos; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.
    The continuous increase of the demand in merchandise and fuels augments the need of modern approaches for the mass-production of renewable chemicals derived from abundant feedstocks, like biomass, as well as for the water and soil remediation pollution resulting from the anthropogenic discharge of organic compounds. Towards these directions and within the concept of circular (bio)economy, the development of efficient and sustainable catalytic processes is of paramount importance. Within this context, the design of novel catalysts play a key role, with carbon-based nanocatalysts (CnCs) representing one of the most promising class of materials. In this review, a wide range of CnCs utilized for biomass valorization towards valuable chemicals production, and for environmental remediation applications are summarized and discussed. Emphasis is given in particular on the catalytic production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from cellulose or starch-rich food waste, the hydrogenolysis of lignin towards high bio-oil yields enriched predominately in alkyl and oxygenated phenolic monomers, the photocatalytic, sonocatalytic or sonophotocatalytic selective partial oxidation of 5-HMF to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) and the decomposition of organic pollutants in aqueous matrixes. The carbonaceous materials were utilized as stand-alone catalysts or as supports of (nano)metals are various types of activated micro/mesoporous carbons, graphene/graphite and the chemically modified counterparts like graphite oxide and reduced graphite oxide, carbon nanotubes, carbon quantum dots, graphitic carbon nitride, and fullerenes.
  • Ítem
    Informe final de práctica empresarial realizada como auxiliar de ingenieria en la empresa Geoforagros SAS.
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Mecánica, Medellín y Envigado, 2023-01-28) Ramirez Perez , Julian Andres; Jaramillo Alvarez, Jonathan Steven
  • Ítem
    Introducción a la tecnología de membranas para la purificación de biogas y algunos desarrollos recientes
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Mecánica, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-01-01) Cardona González, Cristian; Molina Cardona, Diego Andrés; González Chevejoni, Roger Junior; Arbeláez Pérez, Oscar Felipe
    The remotion of CO2 from CO2/CH4 mixes to increasing energy content in natural gas or biogas and to prevent corrosion problems, has driven the development of CO2 separation process through membranes. The attractive features offered by this technology include high energy efficiency, reduced cost and highly flexible performance. This review provides an overview of the reported paper from 2010 to 2020 different types of membranes available: polymeric, inorganic and mixed matrix for CO2/CH4 separation process, experimental conditions and primary de terminants of separation performance and efficiency (permeability of CO2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity). This work would open up a new perspective of each membrane to facilitate a better appreciation of their role in the improvement of overall process performance
  • Ítem
    An evaluation of final disposal alternatives for Municipal Solid Waste through Life Cycle Assessment: a case of study in Colombia
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Mecánica, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-07-11) Caicedo Concha, Diana Milena; Sandoval-Cobo, John J; Stringfellow, Anne; Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando
    Landfilling is still the most common technology used in developing countries for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), albeit the negative impacts on the environment such as those caused by the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to global warming (GW). The Colombian government set a target of 20% reduction in GHG emissions by year 2030, for which the solid waste management sector has an important role to play. Also, the achievement of the targets of sustainable development goals (SDG) is playing a key role for the government agenda and will do so for the next years. In this context, there is an important room for improvement of the management alternatives in currently operative landfills in the country, especially in terms of measures to reduce fugitive air emissions and leachates. This paper evaluates, using life cycle assessment (LCA) methods, the environmental impacts associated with a landfill in Colombia under four different scenarios: open dumps (zero) and conventional landfill under three landfill gas (LFG) management alternatives: venting (a), flaring (b), and energy recovery (c). The impact categories as well as the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods used were determined through the review of LCA studies for MSW management systems in developing countries. Main results show that global warming potential (GWP) was the main environmental impact caused by the landfill operation under the conditions considered; however, GWP was significantly reduced with the shifting from management scenarios with no LFG treatment (o and a: common to most landfills in developing countries) to scenarios where LFG is either flare (b) or utilized for energy production (c). These results suggest that adoption of technologies for LFG capture, burn, and energy recovery must be considered if important reductions of GHGs are expected from the waste management sector, as well as to provide economic incentives to improve the operational sustainability of landfills in developing countries.
  • Ítem
    Multitemporal Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli Analysis in the Middle Bogotá River Basin, 2007–2019
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2022-02-03) Castro Fernandez, Mario Fernando; Cárdenas Manosalva, Ileana Romea; Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Montenegro Marín, Carlos Enrique; Diaz Cuesta, Yeffer Edilberto; Escobar Mahecha, Daniela; Pérez Vásquez, Paula Andrea
    Currently, one of the main environmental problems that need to be addressed is the pollution inflicted upon different ecosystems by anthropic activities. One example of this problem can be seen in the Bogotá River, a major river in the Cundinamarca department of Columbia and the main water source supplying the Bogotá savannah, which reaches the Colombian capital city. The Bogotá River is highly affected by effluents and wastewater of domestic and industrial origin, among others. These pollutants are generated and accumulated throughout the entire basin, without ever receiving any type of treatment. The pollution levels to which the Bogotá River is subjected can be determined with the calculation of environmental indices, including microbiological contamination indicators such as total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms, which include Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Edwardsiella, and Citrobacter bacteria, living as independent saprophytes. This paper assesses the quality of the water in the Bogotá River, using microbiological indicators and data provided by the Regional Autonomous Corporation (CAR) of Cundinamarca to assess water samples, extracted based on the climatic bimodality exhibited in the basin in dry and wet seasons. The scope of this study was limited to the 35 monitoring Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca (CAR) stations located throughout the middle basin. For these purposes, a multitemporal analysis of the TC and Escherichia coli variables was conducted for the 2007–2019 period, which evidenced the contamination levels in this section of the water body. In broad terms, the current state of the middle section of the Bogotá River basin is unacceptable, due to the different activities occurring within its riparian buffer zone, such as uncontrolled domestic, industrial, and/or commercial wastewater discharges. To optimize water treatability, the continuous improvement of existing treatment plants is expected, as well as the implementation of new sustainable treatment alternatives aimed at improving water quality
  • Ítem
    Methodology for automatic fault detection in photovoltaic arrays from artificial neural networks
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-09-29) Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Rojas-Martinez, Eyberth Rolando; Macho-Hernantes, Fernando; Stansfield, Kim E.; Colmenares-Quintero, Juan Carlos
    Automatic fault detection in photovoltaic (PV) systems has acquired great relevance worldwide, as expressed by (Pierdicca et al., 2018), (Rao et al., 2019), and (Lu et al., 2019). This is due to the necessity of keeping this type of system functioning properly for as long as possible. The early detection of faults in solar plants can be summarized in the reduction of serious safety problems, shutdown of the system and need for corrective maintenance. This will be reflected in the decrease in operating costs.
  • Ítem
    Development of riverine hydrokinetic energy systems in Colombia and other world regions: a review of case studies
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-05) Villegas Quiceno, Adriana Patricia; Aristizabal Tique, Victor Hugo; Arbeláez Pérez, Oscar Felipe; Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Véloez Hoyos, Francisco Javier
    At a global level, hydrokinetic power has been considered as a renewable energy source, and it has become an attractive alternative for the rural electrification of non-interconnected areas with the presence of water resources. Aspects such as the low rural electrification rate, the increase in energy demand, the decrease in fossil reserves and the climate change, are some of the factors that have driven the use of this technology for the electricity production. The aim of this work is to give a review of the hydrokinetic energy potential of water resources, the requirements and impacts of the implementation of hydrokinetic technology in different countries, and the current development in the Colombian case. At present, it can be observed that the implementation of this technology in different regions of the world, especially in Colombia, has several challenges and barriers, including gaps in knowledge, information and data, such as well as limitations of water resources and infrastructure, finally, impacting on a low adoption of this technology. On the other hand, publications on studies of implementation and potential of hydrokinetic technology have been increasing over time, indicating that this topic has been gaining interest despite the challenges.
  • Ítem
    Big Data Analytics in Smart Grids for Renewable Energy Networks: Systematic Review of Information and Communication Technology Tools
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-05-25) Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Quiroga Parra, Dario de Jesús; Rojas, Natalia; Stansfield, Kim E.; Colmenares Quintero, Juan Carlos
    The industrial and economic development of the industrialized countries, from the nineteenth century, has gone hand in hand with the development of electricity, the internal combustion engine, computers, the Internet, data use and the intensive use of knowledge focused on science and the technology. Most conventional energy sources have proven to be finite and exhaustible. In turn, the different production activities of goods and services using fossil fuels and conventional energy, have significantly increased the pollution of the environment, and with it, contributed to global warming. The objective of this work was to carry out a theoretical approach to data analytics and business intelligence technologies applied to smart electrical-system networks with renewable energies. For this paper, a bibliometric and bibliographic review about Big Data Analytics, ICT tools of industry 4.0 and Business intelligence was carried out in different databases available in the public domain. The results of the analysis indicate the importance of the use of data analytics and business intelligence in the management of energy companies. The paper concludes by pointing out how business intelligence and data analytics are being applied in specific examples of energy companies and their growing importance in strategic and operational decision making
  • Ítem
    Renewable energy smart sensing system monitoring for Off-Grid vulnerable community in Colombia
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-05-27) Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando; Valderrama-Riveros, Oscar Camilo; Macho-Hernantes, Fernando; Stansfield, Kim E.; Colmenares-Quintero, Juan Carlos
    The implementation of renewable energy is a necessity nowadays and like any other technology involves challenges and opportunities to achieve. In the Enhancing Aquatic Renewable Energy project one of the main objectives is the design of a smart grid to control the power grid, but to understand the behavior of the grid and the actors (generators and consumers) a smart sensing system monitoring must be implemented in the initial phase of the project. In this article we propose the design of a smart sensing system monitoring. The system is going to collect information and inform the status about electrical variables (Power, current, voltage, reactive energy, and power factor) and environment variables (Temperature, solar radiation, GPS, humidity, and atmospheric pressure) from an off-grid renewable energy system fit for a vulnerable community in Colombia. The system was created as web-app that allows multiplatform access and allows scalability for large numbers of generators and loads. Finally, the system offers flexibility to use sensors or hardware to measure the variables since it only reads the information on the data base.
  • Ítem
    Framework to design water-energy solutions based on community perceptions: Case study from a Caribbean coast community in Colombia
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenierías, Ingeniería Civil, Medellín y Envigado, 2021-05-17) Benavides-Castillo, Maria Juliana; Carmona-Parra, Jaime Alberto; Rojas, Natalia; Stansfield, Kim E.; Colmenares Quintero, Juan Carlos; Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando
    The off-grid communities in Colombia are characterised by the diversity of their geography, socio-cultural contexts, and structures of the system. Despite their potential, the opportunities for access to energy and therefore other conditions to develop education, productivity, health, technological projects, and recreation are highly limited. Under those conditions, the implementation of projects with water and/or energy solutions based on renewable sources would bridge the gaps of isolation and social marginalisation that have detained the future of these communities for years. Projects around water and/or energy require the input of external stakeholders to communities, despite of the willingness to change their realities towards a better lifestyle. To achieve a common point of interests among stakeholders, the dialogues, the understanding of the community cosmovision and the ethical perspectives regarding the use of natural resources are needed. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify perceptions of confidence and risk of renewable energy projects within the community. To design water and/or energy solutions based on the abovementioned in a sustainable manner, the framework “Community, wAter-Renewable Energies, Diversity” CARED is being developed, for which the first phase in its implementation is presented. The process has been carried out in the Wayuu indigenous community “La Paz” located nearby Manaure in La Guajira state in the northeast of Colombia.