Cooperativismo & Desarrollo


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  • Ítem
    El fracaso del MRL y de la izquierda no comunista y sus consecuencias futuras para Colombia
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 1999-09) Molina Ramírez, Gerardo
    The article that we include below by Professor Gerardo Molina, one of the most distinguished intellectuals of the Colombian left in the period 1930-1970, constitutes a valuable document for understanding the failures of the Colombian left, included in the MRL. Likewise, this document, written in 1966, provides clues to understand why the current situation in the country was reached, since in a premonitory way Gerardo Molina pointed out that if a political movement was not structured in Colombia that would channel the desires for change of the popular, professional and youth sectors, these would be attracted by other forces, including the guerrillas.
  • Ítem
    Un vistazo a la miopía
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Pérez Londoño, Jorge
    With the obvious fear of falling into the commonplace of the accustomed denunciation of state abandonment of the subject of art and culture in general, we must insist that in Colombia the reflection on these aspects has been polarized to such an extent that it has acquired connotations of class and social position. People speak in Colombia not only of art to dry but it is said that it is popular art or commercial art, where the first is identified with the most needy classes and their claims and the second tends to confuse aesthetics with art or, what it's worse, with just fun. Art is neither pure contestatory social content nor just aesthetic. Due to the impossibility of being more extensive, I will only say that in artistic creation transformations of the sense of reality operate that seek to raise the spiritual level of the recipients of what is created, that propose a new interpretation of reality, elucidated and loaded with truth. Its primary objective is to enrich the life of the human being.
  • Ítem
    Globalización, crisis del capitalismo y ataque a EE.UU.: ¿del neoliberalismo al neoproteccionismo?
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Pernett García, Erick
    During second half of the XIX century the industrial capitalism emerges under the free-trade policies impulse in reaction to the mercantilist protectionism; and if at the end of the XX century the financial capitalism returns to free-trade policies of neoliberal court that enter crisis in the beginning of the XXI century, then are opened some questions on the future of the own capitalism, between them: it can actually the crisis of the neoliberalism be solved unfettered a new stage of neoproteccionism?, the capitalism resists other contraction phase as the one which seems be begun in this century?, a new international war allows to straighten the American economy and restore a new period of expansion to deepen yet more the globalization of the capital?, what new world order and what eventual re-alignment of blocks can stern from a conjuncture in the one which the three-polar structure of the regional centers and the competition inter-blocks had begun to be disintegrated as compared to the permanence of United States? In this trial is noted furthermore to the historical analysis of the neoliberalism and the globalization, where both constitute a historical moment in the phases of free-trade and protectionism by those which travels the world market, impelled by the cycles of expansion and economic contraction that characterize the dialectical of the capital. With the training of new powers industrialized to what is long of the time and with respect to the different stages of the world capitalism the American expansion by the control of the global market arrived to extraordinary limits. The stage of the globalization, reached around the end of XX century, after the breakup of the Agreement of Warsaw and the COMECON at the beginning of the nineties, and of the subsequent integration and contradictory unification of the world capitalist market under the predominance of the financial and transnational capital, lead to the fact that the XXI century is begun in similar conditions to those of principles of the XX century: with a unified world market under predominance of the capitalist production manner, though with technological-scientific development levels of growing complexity and under the hegemony of an alone power. And thus the assault on United States in September 2001 would, in the analysis line that here is exposed, put the final point to the phase in neoliberalism and inherent economic globalization to the expansion and crisis stage of the free-trade at the end of the XX century, to make way to an uncertain stage of neo-proteccionism toward the beginning of the XXI century where the assault seems to dial the transition to a contingent conjuncture of the globalization of the military power, based on the use of the force; and whose prelude, announced by the bombardments against Afghanistan and the world crusade against the terrorism, would constitute the beginning of a new international war with epicentre in the Indian Asian region. This fact coincides with a moment of world crisis of very deep dimensions, determined in large part by the dynamics that the neoliberal policy and the globalization process and internationalization of the capitalist market, under the leadership of United State, they had imposed in the managing of the human relationships at international level converting to this country in the impersonation of such crisis, and where that assault against its own territory seems be constituted in the detonative final of these cyclical processes and the starting point for its contingent transformation.
  • Ítem
    Salud y pobreza
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Gómez Agudelo, Alejandro
    Statistics for adult mortality in the developing world are much less satisfactory than those for child mortality. According to rough calculations for all developing countries, the adult mortality rate (defined as the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60, per 1,000 people who reach the age of 15) dropped from around 450 in 1950. to approximately 230 in 1990. In Chile, a country with excellent statistical data, the rate dropped from 466 in 1930 to 152 in 1990.
  • Ítem
    Mutualismo y cooperativismo en el pensamiento anarquista
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Arango Jaramillo, Mario
    In the mutualist Proudhian conception, the individual preserves his full autonomy while freeing himself from any oppressive, superior and demoralizing power. In economic matters, the following problem was posed: How to organize the circulation of goods without having to resort to capital? To solve it, he points out two complementary paths to each other. On the one hand, it is about guaranteeing the circulation of goods without the use of money; and on the other, to promote free credit or with very low interest. Money would be replaced by credit notes, backed by products whose value would be determined based on the amount of work incorporated into them. As for credit and discounts, they would cease to be mechanisms of the capitalist bank, which through high interest appropriates most of the fruits of labor, thanks to reciprocal aid mechanisms between producers.
  • Ítem
    Geografía del hambre
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Castro, Josué de
    In 1963 it has been estimated that the world's military expenditures amounted to at least 130,000 million dollars. This gigantic figure represents (of which, around 50,000 million corresponded to the United States military budget) something like a sum equivalent to two thirds of the entire national income of Third World countries. Perhaps one more aspect will reveal the gigantic distortion that defines that figure: In 1963 total exports were established at 151,000 million dollars. These exports, it is obvious to say, represented the effort, invention, work and energy of hundreds of millions of men over the course of a year. The aid, at the same time, that the 15 richest industrial countries in the western world provided to the least developed countries in 1963 was of the following size: public sector 6,048 million dollars (6.00 in the year 1961) and in the private sector 1872 million dollars (2.593 in 1961).
  • Ítem
    El hambre del mundo: un crimen de lesa humanidad
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Vargas Pino, Virgilio
    In Latin America, looting of official budgets abounds everywhere; Colombia does not escape, the embezzlements that are generally committed by friends of the regime are constantly discovered and a long, very long process begins on the part of justice that almost never ends, or in some cases it does not end because with the slowness with which they advance and with the running of time the so-called prescription of the crime is applied, with which impunity in countless cases is imposed. This looting, as said, always affects the impoverished sectors, because the resources allocated to the so-called social justice are diminished. so that opportunities do not reach the doors of those in need.
  • Ítem
    Nueva medida de la pobreza
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2002-03) Ramírez Martínez, Evelio
    A few years ago, the United Nations Organization adopted another system of measuring the social progress of a community, different from that used before, consisting of quantifying the value of the income obtained by an individual, belonging to the same, in the period of a calendar year. This method suffered from protruding flaws, since the average income does not show other conditions that also contribute significantly to increasing the well-being that a human conglomerate enjoys at a certain moment in its historical evolution. An example, which serves to corroborate the validity of the aforementioned, is the one shown by the oil-producing countries of the Middle East, where the statistics corresponding to nations such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates show a high rate of per capita income, which is not It is consistent with the social reality that these nations live, where the unequal distribution of the same national income, generates immense deficiencies in essential services to the community, such as health and education for example. For the reasons stated above, the "UN" designed a new mechanism to measure the social situation of a community at a given moment, using for this, in addition to individual income, complementary variables that allow visualizing the position that a given society occupies above in the context of global development. There is no doubt that the management of this new measure of poverty is important for academic circles and, this is the reason for this comment, which is informative more than opinion and in whose elaboration data transcribed verbatim from reports from the multilateral body, today governing world politics.
  • Ítem
    El modelo empresarial educativo: un aporte a los desafíos del desarrollo económico y social de Chile
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2008-07) Sandoval A., Natalia
    However, when analyzing the net effects of the implementation of the current economic model, it can be observed that the set of structural policies and the formation of modern and robust institutions have allowed for high and sustained growth rates to be achieved, to such an extent that GDP per capita has practically doubled in the course of the last 15 years. The adequate inflationary control reflected in an annual variation of 3.5% for the last two years has also been remarkable, in comparison with the 26% obtained during the year 1990, a situation that has contributed to generate confidence in the macroeconomic stability of the country. This panorama is in harmony with the location of Chile in first place in the competitiveness ranking of Latin America and number 27 in the world; The same is true when looking at the remarkable country risk classification that ranks it as the most reliable economy in the region.
  • Ítem
    Economia solidaria, normatividad y gobernabilidad. La economía de la solidaridad en un mundo cambiante"
    (Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Administrativas y Contables, Economía, Medellín, 2008-07) Cracogna, Dante
    I have to start by pointing out that in Colombia a terminology is used that is not commonly used in other Spanish-speaking countries. Indeed, the expression solidarity economy is almost exclusive to this country and to Chile, where Luis Razetto has produced a considerable amount of work on the matter, while the rest generally use the expression social economy, probably under the influence of the French doctrine that he had been using it for a long time and projected it in the Spanish-speaking world. In any case, it should be initially clear that the meaning of both expressions can be considered equivalent. Beyond semantic disquisitions and grammatical purisms, the conceptual sense of one and the other can be considered coincident and, therefore, the extensive theoretical production developed around the social economy is equally applicable to the so-called solidarity economy.