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- ÍtemSindrome de ulcera gastrica en equinos.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Arauca, 2023-07) Univercidad Cooperativa De Colombia; Quintero Valencia , Diego Fernando; Chávez Pacheco, Jharold; Capacho Ballén, Diego FernandoGastric ulcer syndrome in horses is characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the gastric mucosa (acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, tissue erosion, peptic ulceration, and gastropathy. The etiology is multifactorial but is mainly associated with: Diet, stress, inappropriate use of NSAIDs, exercise, confinement, low nutritional quality, infectious diseases. (Godoy P, 2003) The clinical symptoms are found in the anorexia, ptyalism, bruxism, gastric perforation, peritonitis, recurrent colic, emaciation syndrome, decreased physical performance, among others, although some asymptomatic cases may also occur depending on the type of ulceration. The objective of this review is to analyze and describe the main causes and characteristic lesions of gastric ulcerative syndrome in horses, taking into account that it is a pathology with a high prevalence of 53% - 93% which has a great impact on the productivity and performance of the species.
- ÍtemAnálisis de casuística del área de parasitología en el laboratorio clínico veterinario Biovet.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2023-07) Tello Rendón, Jhon Alexander; Arcila Quiceno, Víctor HernánParasitic zoonoses are diseases transmitted between animals and humans; the pathogen is a parasite that can generate high mortality rates, especially in developing countries, causing economic losses in livestock exploitation and health problems for both animals and the human population. In this study, a high prevalence of zoonotic parasites was recorded in canines and felines living in our environment; experiencing different clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, decreased food intake, vomiting, weight loss, malnutrition, excretion of adult parasites, decreased vitality, imbalance in their metabolism that can cause death, being associated with a single parasitic species or in some cases with multiparasitism. In recent years the interaction between pets and humans has become closer, this has allowed the generation of parasitic infections due to the zoonotic nature of these agents, it is important to determine their prevalence in order to improve and establish prevention and control measures. Objective: To determine the annual prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in canines and felines in the Metropolitan area of Bucaramanga, Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 4005 fecal samples were analyzed among canines and felines, during the months of January to December 2021, The samples were collected in different areas of the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga and analyzed in the Biovet Veterinary Clinical Laboratory, which were collected by pet owners directly in the stool or in a serial manner relying on the use of the commercial kit URANOTEST COPRO-URANOVET, For serial sampling, the samples were analyzed for direct observation with physiological saline solution and Lugol for coprology at 10X and 40X magnification; the samples that came in the URANOTEST devices were processed following the protocol suggested by the manufacturer. The results were recorded in a database by species, age, sex, municipality and parasites found. Results of the samples analyzed 3309 (87.67%) were from canines and 696 (17.38%) from felines. Of the total samples, 30.16% (1208/4005) were positive for different parasitic forms such as eggs, trophozoites, oocysts, cysts and 69.83% (2797/4005) of the samples showed no parasitic forms. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found during the year 2021 was 30.16% (1208/4005), by species canine 32% (1059/3309) feline 21.40% (146/696). The most frequently found parasite was Ancylostoma spp 44.6% (539/1208), Giardia spp 28.6% (345/1208), Cystoisospora spp 12.3% (148/1208), Trichomona spp 5.4% (65/1208), Toxocara spp 4.0% (48/1208). In canines the parasite of greatest presentation was Ancylostoma spp with 50% (530/1059) followed by Giardia spp 26% (275/1059) and Cystoisospora spp 10.6% (112/1059); in felines the parasite of greatest presentation was Giardia spp 47% (70/149), followed by Cystoisospora spp 24.2% (36/149) and Ancylostoma spp 6.0% (9/149). Of the 1059 positive canines, 11.33% (120/1059) were found to be coinfected with 2 types of parasites and 1.22% (13/1059) with 3 parasites; of the 149 positive felines, 4.69% (7/149) were found to be coinfected with 2 types of parasites and 0.01% (2/149) were found to be coinfected with 3 parasites. The parasites with the highest frequency of coinfection in dogs with two types of parasites were Giardia spp and Cystoisospora spp with 18.33% (22/120), followed by Ancylostoma spp and Giardia spp 20% (24/120), Ancylostoma spp and Toxocara spp 17.5% (21/120); Cystoisospora spp and Toxocara spp 14.17% (17/120). The parasites with the highest frequency of coinfection in cats were Giardia spp and Cystoisospora spp with 57.14% (4/7), followed by Giardia spp and Toxocara spp 14.28% (1/7), Ancylostoma spp and Uncinaria spp 14.28% (1/7); Uncinaria spp and Toxocara spp 14.28% (1/7). Conclusions: The parasites reported, five of these species have a zoonotic potential, identifying a multiparasitism unknown by professionals and owners, ¿do the prevention and intervention plans respond to these parasites found?
- ÍtemProtocolos de sincronización de celo en búfalos (bubalus bubalis): revisión sistemática de literatura.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2023) Pinto Jáuregui, David Manuel; Cala Moreno, NelsonThe buffalo species is important to the economies of different countries. It is considered a species of late sexual maturity. In addition, it presents long periods of postpartum anestrus, and the reproductive characteristics are not so good, which causes low litter sizes. Due to that, protocols for the synchronization of estrus are developed to be able to manipulate or control the estrous cycle and sometimes the timing of ovulation. The main purpose of this review was to compare the synchronization protocols published in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) through a systematic method using meta-analysis tools. Scientific papers published between 2018 and 2022 about the protocols of estrus synchronization in buffaloes were selected. Papers written in languages other than English, Spanish, and Portuguese were excluded. At the same time, papers with different content for heat synchronization protocols were kept out. Finally, 120 papers from four databases were selected, and 40 of those met the inclusion criteria. Effect diagrams were shown in Forest plot graphics where information was collected on response to estrus, ovulation percentage, percentage of silent estrus, conception rate, and pregnancy rate. Literature-reported reproductive parameters were compared using CI 95%, assuming a normal distribution of the parameters. The standard error was calculated for papers without one reported using the standard deviation and the number of individuals in each paper. The above was reported in forest plot graphics to facilitate the comparison. In conclusion, the Ovsynch protocol, the double application protocol of PgF2a, and the intravaginal device protocol were the synchronization protocols of estrus with the best results in terms of estrus response, ovulation rate, conception rate, and pregnancy rate. Finally, the Ovsynch protocol has been the most effective, given that it uses two important hormones in the estrous cycle, which are GnRH and PgF2a.
- ÍtemTécnicas diagnósticas en rabia: Artículo de revisión.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2023-07) Ramírez Mosquera, Óscar David; Sánchez Bonilla, María del Pilar; Meriño Olivella, SamirThe diagnosis of rabies in both domestic and wild animals has been transforming clinical laboratory techniques. Approaches for the diagnosis of the disease include the detection of the rabies virus (RABV), or the signaling of its fingerprints (Direct or indirect detection methods). These assays are important tools aimed primarily at the global elimination of rabies transmitted by domestic and wild animals. This document reviews the tests available for laboratory diagnosis, as well as their strengths and weaknesses depending on the method implemented. Public health objectives and the use of RABV diagnostic methods vary by area and country, in endemic territories or those with greater control thereof, the detection of all cases in introduced or emerging animals justify exhaustive testing. In settings where wildlife transmission of RABV is endemic in domestic animals, such as rural areas of developing countries, where the majority of cases are reported, availability or access to testing may be severely limited, for Therefore, it is necessary to have a previous analysis of each one of the possible tests to be used in order to select the most indicated ones for each animal group depending on different geographical factors and the species. As the epidemiological situation of rabies in a country or region evolves, the strategy should change from an endemic environment to one that is more controlled and efficient, since this leads to more effective eradication of rabies as a zoonosis.
- ÍtemEfectos del uso sinérgico de eubióticos sobre los parámetros productivos y alométricos en pollos de engorde de la línea ross ap.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Maestría en Salud y Producción Animal, Bucaramanga, 2022-11) Rodríguez Uribe, María Carolina; Jaimes Dueñez, Jeiczon ElimCurrently, eubiotics are postulated as a potential replacement alternative to antibiotics used as subtherapeutics, as growth promoters. Although multiple studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of eubiotics on the productive and allometric parameters of broilers, the combined use of eubiotics has been little evaluated, and their synergistic effect is unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the synergistic use of eubiotics on productive and allometric parameters in broilers of the Ross AP line. The study was carried out during the month of March 2020 in the experimental farm of Italcol S.A., located in the municipality of Piedecuesta, Santander, at an altitude of 1005 meters above sea level. A total of 1400 animals were analyzed through a completely randomized design, evaluating seven treatments (treatment 1 = base diet + pigment + phytase, treatment 2 = base diet + pigment + phytase + antibiotic growth promoter, treatment 3 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + probiotic + prebiotic, treatment 4 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + probiotic + medium chain fatty acid, treatment 5 = base diet + pigment + pigment + phytase + probiotic + prebiotic + medium chain fatty acid, treatment 6 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + prebiotic + medium chain fatty acid and treatment 7 = base diet + pigment + phytase + prebiotic extract + probiotic + medium chain fatty acid), with eight repetitions of 25 animals for each treatment. During the development of the trial, the measurement of productive and allometric parameters at days 7, 14, 21 and 35 was taken into account. Additionally, an analysis of economic productivity in each of the treatments was carried out at day 35, taking into account the commercial values reported at the end of 2020. In general, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the following productive parameters: average weight per bird at day 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35; total consumption per pen at day 14, 21 and 28; accumulated consumption per bird at day 21, 28 and 35; average consumption per bird at day 21, 28 and 35; mortality-adjusted conversion at day 21, 28 and 35; VPI at day 7, 21, and 28 and IEE, with the best values in treatments 5, 6 and 6 at day 7, 21 and 28. Regarding the allometric parameters of the carcass at day 35, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the following items: bird weight with viscera and feathers, bird weight without viscera and feathers, breast weight, wing weight, rib weight and tarsus weight. The highest economic productivity was obtained in treatments 6 and 7, which represents a difference of 2939.14 and 3676.91 USD per 10000 animals, compared to treatment 1, respectively. In conclusion, it was determined that the best productive and allometric parameters were presented in the animals that consumed the treatments containing prebiotics in their formulation, for this reason the addition of these compounds should be considered as a safe nutritional alternative to improve the synergic effect with other eubiotics, and increase the efficiency of the productive systems.
- ÍtemUso de la Spirulina en el tratamiento de aguas residuales de la producción y transformación pecuaria(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-10-19) Vargas Pimiento, Lady Vanessa; Albarracín Balaguera, Miguel AntonioThe population is increasing at a dizzying rate, which results in an increase in food demand, forcing all industrial sectors to increase their production. Worldwide, 2,162,300 million cubic meters of water are consumed, of which 70% of the world's water footprint is related to agriculture and livestock. The main objective of the research was to analyze the use of Spirulina in the treatment of wastewater from livestock production and processing. The PRISMA methodology was used to select the search protocol, 182 articles were chosen in a publication period from 2010 to 2022, and finally the literature analysis and data synthesis were carried out. It was found that Spirulina can eliminate 70% of COD and COD5 of wastewater from livestock production and can also be used to produce biomass, create biodiesel and mitigate noxious odors. It is concluded that the cyanobacterium Spirulina is a suitable candidate for the sanitation of wastewater from livestock productions exposed in fish, pigs, poultry, cattle, but it is necessary to conduct further research as information is still very recent and requires more data for its complementation.
- ÍtemDiseño de un sistema de clasificación de canales bovinas e implementación de un manual de procedimientos para estandarizar el proceso en la planta de beneficio Colbeef S.A.S(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-10) Sierra Sandoval, Cesar Augusto; Canónigo Ortiz, Jessica Paola; Cárdenas Pinto, Luis Arturo; Arcila Quiceno, Víctor Hernán; Polo Triana, Jorge ManuelThe present report will present the final report of the social, business and solidarity practice carried out at the Colbeef S.A.S. processing plant located in the department of Santander, municipality of Floridablanca. The main objective was to design an internal carcass classification system based on quality and to write a procedures manual to standardize the carcass classification process at the plant. The methodology used to achieve the objective consisted of 3 main stages. The first stage consisted of developing and designing the internal carcass classification system based on quality, for which it was necessary to review the literature on the subject worldwide, analyze the environment, customer needs and the company's target markets, identify and understand the process of Colbeef's processing line in order to select relevant quality evaluation criteria and design a classification system correctly. The second stage consisted of carrying out an exercise to apply the channel classification and for this purpose it was necessary to prepare an information collection format, define the process areas and people involved, carry out verification and final adjustments and carry out the application of the classification. The third and final stage consisted of drafting the procedures manual as a basis for the company to continue to carry out the exercise and standardize the process. During the application stage of the exercise, 729 carcasses from different batches of animals corresponding to institutional clients selected at random during the application period were evaluated and classified. The results showed that 80.40% were males and 16.60% were females, 55.41% were animals between 18 and 36 months and 44.59% were animals from 48 months and older. With respect to class, the majority were in class A 49.38%, followed by class B 30.59%, class C 11.89% and class D had the lowest percentage of animals 8.23%. The finishing grade had the highest number of carcasses in grade 2 with 41.43%, followed by grade 1 with 28.67%, grade 3 with 24.42% and grade 0 with 5.49%. Considering the carcass yield, it can be observed that the carcasses were grouped in the GOOD category with 37.72%, followed by the ACCEPTABLE category with 24.42%, then the EXCELLENT category with 21.26% and finally the LOW category with 16.60%. The final classification shows that the majority of carcasses (40.88%) were grouped in the STANDARD category, which means that carcasses with these characteristics are those commonly sold in the local market, followed by the SUPREME category with 31.96%, then BASIC with 18.79%, PREMIUM with 6.72% and finally ACCEPTABLE with 1.65%, which is considered a somewhat unfavorable result since it was expected that more carcasses would be grouped in the PREMIUM category. Finally, the procedures manual was drafted with a step-by-step guide to correctly classify internal channels, which remains as an instrument of orientation and training for the company.
- ÍtemLeishmania Visceral en Colombia: una revisión histórica(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2021-08) Parada Pinilla, Valentina; Caicedo Blanco, Yuly AndreaOne of the zoonoses of great impact is visceral Leishmaniasis caused by the parasite Leish- mania infantum, transmitted by the infected hematophagous female vector called Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main reservoir being the domestic dog, considered a forgotten tropical pathology in 98 countries around the world. worldwide, especially in Colombia since its rst cases in humans and canines, for this reason it is vitally important to know the development of visceral Leishmaniasis over the years in the country considering that the low report of cases in canines would lead to a lack of knowledge of the actual occurrence of the disease. The main objective is to develop a systematic literature review about the epidemiological behavior of Visceral Leishmaniasis over the years in Colombia.
- ÍtemDesarrollo y regulación genética en embriones tempranos bovinos(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2021-07-22) Medina Céspedes, Fany Lorena; Tovar Olmos, Laura Marcela; Lopera Vasquez, Ricaurte; Bonilla Leon, LilianThe development and genetic regulation in embryos is a knowledge that is currently the pillar of various biotechnology techniques for bovine reproduction, since these techniques have favored efficient production and reproduction in livestock farms worldwide. This thanks to an impact, on genetic dissemination, and the impact on quality, reproduction and production. On the other hand, embryonic development has influenced the development of advanced reproductive techniques such as genetic manipulation techniques, stem cells, transgenesis and cloning.
- ÍtemManual de descartes y selección de aves no aptas para el consumo(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2021-06-26) Sarmiento Calderón, Aura Lucía; Cortes Machado, Luz StellaIn today's society and in the food trade, the requirement to have a quality product is becoming increasingly relevant for consumers around the world, considering that all human beings have the right to eat in a healthy way and this the right must be guaranteed in a responsible manner by all food producers, complying with the standards and requirements necessary to guarantee quality food. The objective of the practice was to design a manual for the selection of birds not suitable for consumption for the company DISTRAVES S.A.S. that contributes to optimizing production and guaranteeing the quality of the birds. Among the activities developed during the practice and in favor of the design of the manual, the analysis of the production process stands out, as well as the different evaluations carried out during the different stages of the process, both in the ante-mortem inspection of the birds; verifying the state of health before slaughter, as in the post-mortem inspection of the carcass, identifying the presence of any eventuality that could affect the quality of the product. Contributing in this way to the protection of public health.