- ÍtemEfectos del uso sinérgico de eubióticos sobre los parámetros productivos y alométricos en pollos de engorde de la línea ross ap.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Maestría en Salud y Producción Animal, Bucaramanga, 2022-11) Rodríguez Uribe, María Carolina; Jaimes Dueñez, Jeiczon ElimCurrently, eubiotics are postulated as a potential replacement alternative to antibiotics used as subtherapeutics, as growth promoters. Although multiple studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of eubiotics on the productive and allometric parameters of broilers, the combined use of eubiotics has been little evaluated, and their synergistic effect is unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the synergistic use of eubiotics on productive and allometric parameters in broilers of the Ross AP line. The study was carried out during the month of March 2020 in the experimental farm of Italcol S.A., located in the municipality of Piedecuesta, Santander, at an altitude of 1005 meters above sea level. A total of 1400 animals were analyzed through a completely randomized design, evaluating seven treatments (treatment 1 = base diet + pigment + phytase, treatment 2 = base diet + pigment + phytase + antibiotic growth promoter, treatment 3 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + probiotic + prebiotic, treatment 4 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + probiotic + medium chain fatty acid, treatment 5 = base diet + pigment + pigment + phytase + probiotic + prebiotic + medium chain fatty acid, treatment 6 = base diet + pigment + phytase + natural extract + prebiotic + medium chain fatty acid and treatment 7 = base diet + pigment + phytase + prebiotic extract + probiotic + medium chain fatty acid), with eight repetitions of 25 animals for each treatment. During the development of the trial, the measurement of productive and allometric parameters at days 7, 14, 21 and 35 was taken into account. Additionally, an analysis of economic productivity in each of the treatments was carried out at day 35, taking into account the commercial values reported at the end of 2020. In general, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the following productive parameters: average weight per bird at day 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35; total consumption per pen at day 14, 21 and 28; accumulated consumption per bird at day 21, 28 and 35; average consumption per bird at day 21, 28 and 35; mortality-adjusted conversion at day 21, 28 and 35; VPI at day 7, 21, and 28 and IEE, with the best values in treatments 5, 6 and 6 at day 7, 21 and 28. Regarding the allometric parameters of the carcass at day 35, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the following items: bird weight with viscera and feathers, bird weight without viscera and feathers, breast weight, wing weight, rib weight and tarsus weight. The highest economic productivity was obtained in treatments 6 and 7, which represents a difference of 2939.14 and 3676.91 USD per 10000 animals, compared to treatment 1, respectively. In conclusion, it was determined that the best productive and allometric parameters were presented in the animals that consumed the treatments containing prebiotics in their formulation, for this reason the addition of these compounds should be considered as a safe nutritional alternative to improve the synergic effect with other eubiotics, and increase the efficiency of the productive systems.
- ÍtemUso de la Spirulina en el tratamiento de aguas residuales de la producción y transformación pecuaria(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-10-19) Vargas Pimiento, Lady Vanessa; Albarracín Balaguera, Miguel AntonioThe population is increasing at a dizzying rate, which results in an increase in food demand, forcing all industrial sectors to increase their production. Worldwide, 2,162,300 million cubic meters of water are consumed, of which 70% of the world's water footprint is related to agriculture and livestock. The main objective of the research was to analyze the use of Spirulina in the treatment of wastewater from livestock production and processing. The PRISMA methodology was used to select the search protocol, 182 articles were chosen in a publication period from 2010 to 2022, and finally the literature analysis and data synthesis were carried out. It was found that Spirulina can eliminate 70% of COD and COD5 of wastewater from livestock production and can also be used to produce biomass, create biodiesel and mitigate noxious odors. It is concluded that the cyanobacterium Spirulina is a suitable candidate for the sanitation of wastewater from livestock productions exposed in fish, pigs, poultry, cattle, but it is necessary to conduct further research as information is still very recent and requires more data for its complementation.
- ÍtemDiseño de un sistema de clasificación de canales bovinas e implementación de un manual de procedimientos para estandarizar el proceso en la planta de beneficio Colbeef S.A.S(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2022-10) Sierra Sandoval, Cesar Augusto; Canónigo Ortiz, Jessica Paola; Cárdenas Pinto, Luis Arturo; Arcila Quiceno, Víctor Hernán; Polo Triana, Jorge ManuelThe present report will present the final report of the social, business and solidarity practice carried out at the Colbeef S.A.S. processing plant located in the department of Santander, municipality of Floridablanca. The main objective was to design an internal carcass classification system based on quality and to write a procedures manual to standardize the carcass classification process at the plant. The methodology used to achieve the objective consisted of 3 main stages. The first stage consisted of developing and designing the internal carcass classification system based on quality, for which it was necessary to review the literature on the subject worldwide, analyze the environment, customer needs and the company's target markets, identify and understand the process of Colbeef's processing line in order to select relevant quality evaluation criteria and design a classification system correctly. The second stage consisted of carrying out an exercise to apply the channel classification and for this purpose it was necessary to prepare an information collection format, define the process areas and people involved, carry out verification and final adjustments and carry out the application of the classification. The third and final stage consisted of drafting the procedures manual as a basis for the company to continue to carry out the exercise and standardize the process. During the application stage of the exercise, 729 carcasses from different batches of animals corresponding to institutional clients selected at random during the application period were evaluated and classified. The results showed that 80.40% were males and 16.60% were females, 55.41% were animals between 18 and 36 months and 44.59% were animals from 48 months and older. With respect to class, the majority were in class A 49.38%, followed by class B 30.59%, class C 11.89% and class D had the lowest percentage of animals 8.23%. The finishing grade had the highest number of carcasses in grade 2 with 41.43%, followed by grade 1 with 28.67%, grade 3 with 24.42% and grade 0 with 5.49%. Considering the carcass yield, it can be observed that the carcasses were grouped in the GOOD category with 37.72%, followed by the ACCEPTABLE category with 24.42%, then the EXCELLENT category with 21.26% and finally the LOW category with 16.60%. The final classification shows that the majority of carcasses (40.88%) were grouped in the STANDARD category, which means that carcasses with these characteristics are those commonly sold in the local market, followed by the SUPREME category with 31.96%, then BASIC with 18.79%, PREMIUM with 6.72% and finally ACCEPTABLE with 1.65%, which is considered a somewhat unfavorable result since it was expected that more carcasses would be grouped in the PREMIUM category. Finally, the procedures manual was drafted with a step-by-step guide to correctly classify internal channels, which remains as an instrument of orientation and training for the company.
- ÍtemLeishmania Visceral en Colombia: una revisión histórica(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2021-08) Parada Pinilla, Valentina; Caicedo Blanco, Yuly AndreaOne of the zoonoses of great impact is visceral Leishmaniasis caused by the parasite Leish- mania infantum, transmitted by the infected hematophagous female vector called Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main reservoir being the domestic dog, considered a forgotten tropical pathology in 98 countries around the world. worldwide, especially in Colombia since its rst cases in humans and canines, for this reason it is vitally important to know the development of visceral Leishmaniasis over the years in the country considering that the low report of cases in canines would lead to a lack of knowledge of the actual occurrence of the disease. The main objective is to develop a systematic literature review about the epidemiological behavior of Visceral Leishmaniasis over the years in Colombia.
- ÍtemDesarrollo y regulación genética en embriones tempranos bovinos(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2021-07-22) Medina Céspedes, Fany Lorena; Tovar Olmos, Laura Marcela; Lopera Vasquez, Ricaurte; Bonilla Leon, LilianThe development and genetic regulation in embryos is a knowledge that is currently the pillar of various biotechnology techniques for bovine reproduction, since these techniques have favored efficient production and reproduction in livestock farms worldwide. This thanks to an impact, on genetic dissemination, and the impact on quality, reproduction and production. On the other hand, embryonic development has influenced the development of advanced reproductive techniques such as genetic manipulation techniques, stem cells, transgenesis and cloning.
- ÍtemManual de descartes y selección de aves no aptas para el consumo(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2021-06-26) Sarmiento Calderón, Aura Lucía; Cortes Machado, Luz StellaIn today's society and in the food trade, the requirement to have a quality product is becoming increasingly relevant for consumers around the world, considering that all human beings have the right to eat in a healthy way and this the right must be guaranteed in a responsible manner by all food producers, complying with the standards and requirements necessary to guarantee quality food. The objective of the practice was to design a manual for the selection of birds not suitable for consumption for the company DISTRAVES S.A.S. that contributes to optimizing production and guaranteeing the quality of the birds. Among the activities developed during the practice and in favor of the design of the manual, the analysis of the production process stands out, as well as the different evaluations carried out during the different stages of the process, both in the ante-mortem inspection of the birds; verifying the state of health before slaughter, as in the post-mortem inspection of the carcass, identifying the presence of any eventuality that could affect the quality of the product. Contributing in this way to the protection of public health.
- ÍtemPrevención y diagnostico en tuberculosis bovina(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2021-06-28) Cifuentes Molina, Juana Valentina; Murillo Avila, Ana Maria; Bonilla Leon, LilianBovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), a bacillus belonging to the genus Mycobacterium, which is closely related to the bacteria that cause human and avian tuberculosis. The objective of this paper was based on analyzing the process of prevention and diagnosis in bovine tuberculosis. For research purposes, it was decided to apply the documentary review as a way to support the object of study of the research. As a result, it was evidenced that there is still no effective vaccine as a method of prevention of bovine tuberculosis. At present, vaccination is mainly used to prevent severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis; however, the vaccine does not prevent the most common form of the pathology. Currently, the disease has generated great economic losses due to the eradication processes and the control and prevention programs, as well as the slaughter of animals. Although it is true that there are multiple diagnostic methods, prevention and control are the best tools to avoid losses. It is essential that research on the object of study is deepened, since from our perspective, more lethal and harmful variants could emerge.
- ÍtemTransferencia de embriones en Panthera Onca revisión sistemática de literatura(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Bucaramanga, 2021-02-12) Arias Arellano, Angie Katerine; Quintero Sánchez, VladimirThe aim of this review is to collect published data to analyze theoretical concepts related to the techniques of embryo transfer in the Panthera onca species, this technique is one of the most recognized method in the field of assisted reproduction biotechnology. To approach this systematic analysis, it is important to provide a general context about the risk of extinction of this species and therefore to demonstrate the need of implementing alternative methods that allow its conservation; to identify different parameters involved in the life cycle in both, female and male specimens; to obtain an overview of their current condition in the environment as well as in the reproductive field. On the other hand, this review screened a total of one hundred and fifty scientific articles, that were selected according to their relevance in terms of environmental, reproductive and behavioral approach. Later on, the selected papers were subsequent screened using inclusion criteria to finally obtain thirty four articles, which were used to build this systematic analysis of literature.
- ÍtemHormonas esteroideas de origen sexual y su importancia en reproducción bovina(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2021-01-19) Villamil Jiménez, Geraldine; Trujillo Sánchez, Luz Myriam; Lopera Vásquez, RicaurteSteroid hormones play a fundamental role in the regulation of multiple biological processes, including electrolyte homeostasis, stress response, reproductive function in differentiation, primary and secondary sexual characteristics. Steroid hormones comes from cholesterol in specific cells of the ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, placenta, and central nervous system. These hormones are classified into 5 groups by the receptor to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, oestrogens, and progestagens. Specifically, at reproductive level, steroids are essential in foetal development, cell differentiation, sexual maturation and growth. There are different mechanisms by which steroid hormones effect host cells. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms contribute to regulate the different cellular functions mediated by steroid hormones. The signal interaction of the transduction pathways is mediated by receptors for both steroids and other chemical messengers. The activation of a receptor occurs through specific ligands or through interaction with other proteins previously activated by means of classical ligands, independent ligands and independent ERES. Likewise, the interaction between signals generated by the activation of membrane receptors and in the nucleus, can occur through the molecules regulated by cytoplasmic receptors. Different steroid hormones have an effect on the same cell type, in some cases they are able to regulate the same set of genes.
- ÍtemComportamiento y detección de la anemia infecciosa felina causada por Mycoplasmas.(Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaría y Zootecnia, Ibagué, 2020-08-14) Rojas Bedoya, Angela Patricia; Sanchez, Maria del PilarHemoplasmosis is an infection caused by M. hemofelis with moderate severity of anemia in cats. This infection can cause mild anemia during acute infection; however, as a carrier state is common, concurrent disease should be investigated clinically anemic cats. In addition to the decrease in the red line hematologically speaking, weight loss, anorexia, depression, pale mucous membranes or jaundice, weakness, fever or hypothermia, joint pain, hyperesthesia and occasionally, splenomegaly, depression, dehydration and cachexia can also be manifested. Precise diagnosis has been complex since its discovery, because mycoplasma lacks a cell wall and contains DNA and RNA that replicates by binary fission, but Romanowsky staining techniques: Giemsa, May-Grunwald-Giemsa, Wright and Wright-Giemsa for blood smears have been of great help for the diagnosis of this pathology among others, considering that CRP is the final queen test.