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Examinando Investigación por Programa "Medicina veterinaria y zootecnia"
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- ÍtemBasicranial Modular Organization. A Study in the Araucanian Horse of Colombia.(Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, 2023-03-28) Salamanca-Carreño, Arcesio; Parés-Casanova, Pere Miquel; Crosby-Granados, René Alejandro; Vélez-Terranova, Mauricio; Bentez-Molano, JannetThe skull is divided into neurocranium and splanchnocranium, and its variation allows ecomorphological studies to learn about possible evolutionary and adaptive characteristics. The basicranial organization of the neurocranium and splanchnocranium modules was studied in a sample of 31 skulls from adult Araucanian horses by means of 2D geometric morphometric techniques. The neurocranium and splanchnocranium modules on the ventral aspect were analyzed separately using a set of 31 landmarks. The RV coefficient (the multivariate analog of a correlation) was estimated to analyze the independence of these two parts, as well as their morphological integration, using a two-block analysis of least squares. The study results confirm the modular development of the neurocranium and the splanchnocranium, the former being more stable than the latter as well as low morphological integration between the two. The development between both parties is structured in a modular way but allows relative independence. Now it would be interesting for future studies to add muscles (those that connect the cranial parts, but also the cervical), the hyoid apparatus, and the ossicles of the internal ear and the jaw and analyze if they behave as integrated modules between them. Since this research has been conducted at the subspecific breed level, it could be plausible that in other breeds, this integrative development was different.
- ÍtemComponentes ponderales en la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) (Cuvier, 1818) (Teleostei: Characidae) en la sabana inundable de Arauca, Colombia(Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, 2023-02-27) Parés-Casanova, Pere Miquel; Salamanca Carreño, Arcesio; Bentez Molano, Jannet; Crosby Granados, René AlejandroThe aim of this study was to estimate the allometric parameters of different parts of pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus), as well as to establish if the growth of these components is allometric or isometric. In total, 60 specimens collected at random from a farm in Arauca (Colombia) were used. Live weights, carcass weights and weights of scales, viscera and gills were determined. Three algorithms were tested to quantify the relationships between live body weight and each of the components: Ordinary Least Squares, Reduced Major Axis, and Major Axis. The data were logarithmically transformed in order to fit the equations to the allometric function y=10bxa, where y represents the body component in question and x is the independent associated variable. The three methods provided regression coefficients that are, from a theoretical point of view, different, thus providing different estimates of the same quantity. The Ordinary Least Squares algorithm, with the minimum slope, would appear to be the model that best fits the real allometric behavior of this species.
- ÍtemEnvironmental Factors That Affect the Sanitary and Nutritional Variability of Raw Milk in Dual Purpose Livestock Systems of Colombian Orinoquia(Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, 2023-04-18) Vélez-Terranova, Mauricio; Campos Gaona, Rómulo; Salamanca Carreño, Arcesio; Velasco Daza, Ricardo Andrés; Arenas Rodríguez, Brandon Alexis; Chaparro Ortegón, José SebastiánMilk is the natural food with the highest biological quality for the human population and its production can be affected by several sanitary factors and management conditions. With the objective of identifying influence factors on milk compositional and sanitary quality in a region with wide productive potential in the Colombian Orinoquia, an experiment was carried out in two contrasting climatic seasons. For the milk compositional analysis, samples of daily production from 30 dual-purpose systems were analyzed. Similarly, the udder sanitary status of 300 cows was studied using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Data analysis included mixed models, Pearson correlations, frequency tables, and the Kruskal–Wallis test. The results showed that the total daily milk production of the farm and the season influenced the milk compositional quality. The farms with milk productions lower than 100 kg/day presented the highest levels of protein, lactose, solid non-fat (SNF), and density, while in the rainy season, the milk quality was higher compared to the dry season. The CMT test indicated that only 7.6% of the evaluated mammary quarters presented two or more degrees of positivity. There is an opportunity to improve the milk compositional quality by improving the nutritional offer for animals during the year. The low CMT positivity indicates that, in the calf-at-foot milking system, the presence of subclinical mastitis is not a determining variable in milk production.
- ÍtemRelationship of Physiographic Position to Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils of the Flooded-Savannah Agroecosystem, Colombia.(Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, 2023-01-16) Salamanca - Carreño, Arcesio; Vélez-Terranova, Mauricio; Vargas-Corzo, Oscar Mauricio; Pérez-López, Otoniel; Castillo-Pérez, Andrés Fernando; Parés-Casanova, Pere M.Savannah floodplains are a natural agroecosystem located in the eastern plains of Colombia, with soils considered to be of low fertility. This assumption has not been rigorously validated by direct experimental studies. The aim of the study was to analyze the soils’ physicochemical characteristics of the “banks” and “lows”, which are physiographic positions, from the floodplain savannah in Arauca, Colombia. Soil samples were collected in “low” (n = 14) and “bank” (n = 15) physiographic positions. For each soil sample, the following chemical variables were determined: pH, organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, exchange acidity, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B, and physical variable (texture). The Wilcoxon non-parametric test (Mann–Whitney) was applied for the comparison of the soil’s physicochemical variables in each physiographic position (p < 0.05). The highest values for each variable analyzed correspond to the physiographic position of “low” (p < 0.05). The pH, T.N., Na, K and B were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The physiographic positions of “bank” and “low” of floodplain savannah presented low levels of most nutrients, with slightly higher values in the “low” physiographic position. Corrective measures must be applied to improve the nutritional values of savannah soils and, consequently, the productivity of native forages. Despite these deficiencies, the vegetation cover is given by very well-adapted native grasses, reflecting the conditions of said agroecosystem.